Ethnic Studies Grad Requirements are a Beginning, Not an End

Sign that says "It's a privilege to educate yourself about racism instead of experiencing it".

My home state of California recently celebrated yet another first by becoming the first in the nation to require an ethnic studies class to graduate from high school. The bill’s author, Assemblymember Jose Medina, believes that ethnic studies “provides hope for fostering understanding and unity” in the face of civil unrest and racial tension. In fact, passage of the legislation came just over a week after students from an Orange County, California high school demonstrated why this mass education is still sorely needed.

In a highly publicized racial incident, the students from one high school with a very slight white majority student population at 51% seemingly targeted the Latinx students from a neighboring high school by way of a viral poster reading, “Ur dad is my GARDENER.”

While the Placentia-Yorba Linda Unified School District vowed to investigate, the school board may meanwhile propose a resolution to define and ban “critical race theory” at their next meeting.

As an Orange County Latina who attended high school in the same school district in question, I’m both disappointed by how little has changed in the more-than-decade since I graduated and also hopeful for the classes of 2030 and beyond (2030 is the year in which the ethnic studies requirement becomes effective for graduates).

It simply isn’t too much to ask that our education system include educating our children about diversity.

In fact, such racist incidents demonstrate ignorance about, if not outright resistance to, the reality of an increasingly diverse nation with a diminishing white population. Part of the issue we are facing can be attributed to the lack of diversity within the teaching corps as much as it reflects an uninformed portion of the student population.

Reflecting upon my time in high school, I can attest to the fact that I never had a Latinx teacher, or any teacher of color for that matter.

I can’t recall ever interacting with a Latinx school administrator during my four years.

All my teachers were, as far as I could tell, white. I genuinely believe that they cared about me and the rest of their students regardless of race or ethnicity and a handful of my teachers were wonderful with credit due to their commitment to teaching.

But, there were others who sometimes committed lapses in cultural understanding in their teaching and during casual interactions with students. Such microaggressions included errant remarks about immigration and “real Mexicans” during class lectures and overheard “jokes” predicting which Latina student would be the first to become pregnant, that I was forced to process at a critical time in my development.

In my school district, the teacher population is nearly 80% white, while the student population is 43% Latinx.

But let me be clear, this isn’t just a suburban Orange County reality. In California, the most diverse state in our nation, Latinx teachers only make up 21% of the teaching workforce while the student population is more than 50% Latinx.

According to a 2018 study from the Learning Policy Institute, students of color who have educators of color demonstrate greater academic achievement, such as social and emotional gains; increased scores on standardized tests; and decreased rates of chronic absenteeism, suspensions, and dropouts. White students benefit from educator diversity as well, meaning that the achievement of a truly diverse teaching workforce would be a win for all students.

Yet, aspiring teachers of color experience significant barriers to entry at every level of the teacher workforce pipeline, such as the high cost of college attendance and lower college completion rates.

These problems are not without solutions at every level of our education system. 

For example, school districts could create DEI (diversity, equity, and inclusion) subcommittees to strengthen hiring and retention practices and work in partnership with local Minority Serving Institutions. States could modify credentialing requirements to remove unnecessary hurdles, such as overreliance on standardized testing requirements given the mounting evidence that they don’t accurately or consistently predict teacher effectiveness.

At the federal level, the Secretary of Education could create a subcommittee to explore and report to Congress potential solutions, such as grant programs and additional financial aid (#DoublePell).

The inclusion of an ethnic studies bill as a high school graduation requirement is a hard-fought accomplishment with far-reaching implications. However, it’s only the beginning of not only the kind of transformation that is possible, but the kind necessary to promote inclusivity and student success for our next generation.

Briana M. Calleros lives in Brea, CA and works as the Director of Community Education at Suma Wealth. She is a recent graduate of the Hispanas Organized for Political Equity (HOPE) HLI 2021 Cohort, an intensive nine-month leadership program for professional Latinas across California. The goal of the Institute is to train Latinas in vital leadership and advocacy skills, enabling them to create fundamental change within their local neighborhoods, state, and workplace.

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Women in Texas at the National Women's March, rallying against deadly abortion restrictions.
Lucy Flores

The landscape of abortion rights in the United States has become more restrictive than ever in recent history, particularly in Arizona and Florida, where recent developments represent a major setback for women’s reproductive rights. On April 9, the Arizona Supreme Court ruled in a 4-to-2 decision to uphold an 1864 law banning abortion from the moment of conception. The only exception is saving the mother’s life, but there are no exceptions for rape or incest under this law.

Just a few days earlier, on April 1, the Florida Supreme Court also ruled in favor of upholding a 6-week abortion ban, which will take effect on May 1. This further reduced the legal threshold for abortions in Florida, which used to be 24 weeks of pregnancy before Republicans passed a law in 2022 banning abortions after 15 weeks. Both of these rulings have sparked intense debate and outrage about their impact on women’s rights.

Overview of the Near-Total Abortion Ban in Arizona

The Arizona Supreme Court voted to uphold an 1864 law, a law passed even before the state officially was a part of the United States of America, that makes all types of abortion illegal, including medication abortion, from the moment of conception. Though there are exceptions in cases where the mother’s life is at risk, the ban makes no exceptions for cases of rape or incest and imposes severe penalties, including imprisonment, on medical professionals performing abortions.

Medical professionals have spoken out about how dire the situation will become for women with this near-total abortion ban. Dr. Jill Gibson, chief medical director of Planned Parenthood in Arizona, told CNN that this ruling will have “absolutely unbelievable consequences for the patients in our community.” She continued by saying, “Providers need to be able to take care of their patients without fear of legal repercussions and criminalization.”

Representatives from Arizona and other states across the country have also spoken up against this near-total abortion ban.

Video by Shontel Brown Member of the United States House of Representatives on InstagramVideo by Shontel Brown Member of the United States House of Representatives on Instagram

Image by Rub\u00e9n Gallego Member of the United States House of Representatives on InstagramImage by Rubén Gallego Member of the United States House of Representatives on InstagramImage by Rubén Gallego Member of the United States House of Representatives on Instagram

Until this Arizona Supreme Court decision, abortion had been legal in the state up to 15 weeks of pregnancy. The right to abortion via Roe v. Wade prevented the enforcement of the near-total abortion ban, but since a majority vote in the Supreme Court of the United States overturned Roe, those opposed to abortion rights had been fighting to enforce the 160-year-old 1864 law.

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An Overview of Florida's Six-Week Abortion Ban

The landscape of abortion in Florida has also undergone a significant change with the enforcement of a 6-week abortion ban, replacing the previous 15-week limit. This ban, similar to Arizona's, severely restricts access to abortion care and poses a significant challenge to reproductive rights in the state. Providers are bracing for a public health crisis due to the increased demand for abortion and limited options for patients.

Practically speaking, a 6-week abortion ban is a near-total abortion ban because pregnant people often don’t even realize they could be pregnant by this early stage. Combined with Florida’s strict abortion requirements, which include mandatory in-person doctor visits with a 24-hour waiting period, it’s nearly impossible for those who may want an abortion to be able to access it before 6 weeks. Not to mention that fulfilling the requirements is particularly challenging for low-income individuals.

Video by theluncheonlawyer on InstagramVideo by theluncheonlawyer on Instagram

Moreover, this Florida law also restricts telemedicine for abortion and requires that medication be provided in person, effectively eliminating mail-order options for abortion pills. While exceptions for rape and incest exist in Florida, the requirements are also strict, asking victims to provide police records or medical records. For victims who don’t always report sexual violence for many different reasons, these exceptions don’t make a difference.

The consequences of Florida’s ban extend to neighboring states with more restrictive abortion laws. For instance, residents of Alabama, facing a total ban on abortion, and Georgia, with its own 6-week abortion ban, have relied on Florida for abortion services. That will no longer be an option, further limiting care alternatives.

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These recent abortion bans in Arizona and Florida are a major setback for women's rights, particularly impacting Latina women who already face barriers to accessing quality healthcare. These bans not only restrict women’s reproductive freedom but also endanger their lives.

Efforts to challenge these bans through legal means and ballot measures are ongoing, but the road ahead is uncertain. While there’s hope for overturning these abortion bans, the challenges of conservative laws and legal battles are formidable. The November ballot in both states will be crucial in determining the future of abortion rights and access for all.

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